WILDFIRES CLIMATE CHANGE (Greece&Turkey) Categories: Climate Change, Pollution

YRE Competition 2022
1st Place - International Collaboration
11-14 years old

By Ali Emre Varis, Bahar Koray, Begum Kilic, Derin Demirbas, Fatih Sarp Yildirim, Adil Ilkem Aydogan, Guner Polatoz, Idil Baser, Mehmet Yagiz Yuksel, Poyraz Erguvan Vlastou Vasiliki, Kapsanis Theodore, Bilfeld David, Brili Melita, Nezis Stergio, Papandropoulou Lydia, Stamelou Natalia, Fragaki Maro, Chanioti Urania, Hatzopoulous Angelo, Linardos Dimitris

Early August 2021 was a terrible month for the Mediterranean. A record heat wave sparked wildfires across Greece and Turkey. It had elevated temperatures, reaching 47.1C and it was also dry. Many fires spread all over the area. The largest wildfires in Greece were in Attica, Olympia, Messenia, and Evia. At the same time, Turkey’s wildfires began in Manavgat and Antalya province with the temperature rising to 37C.                                                                                               

The numbers were frustrating. In Greece, three people lost their lives, at least twenty people were injured, and dozens of homes got burnt living people homeless. Over 1.200.000 acres of green land turned black. There was deadly gas in the atmosphere spreading over Attica. Many animals had to leave their homes in order not to get burnt. At the same time, in Turkey, there were more than 200 disastrous wildfires too, mostly in July and August, being the most ruinous wildfires in the country’s history. Flames burning everywhere, people screaming, animals running, loud sirens coming from the fire trucks, chaos.

What was it like to be there?

Konstantine Chaniotis, an 80-year-old retired mechanic from Greece, was present. His first thought was water. "I ran to the yard to check if the water was running" he said. After a few minutes, the police officers told me to evacuate my property. I was devastated.” He let his dog go free because he could not take it with him. The police led him somewhere, to keep him safe. “It was beyond terrifying. The place where I had been living for 40 years was being burnt down. When I finally came back, the view was dystopian. Everyone was shattered.”

Stefanos Kapsanis, a 45-year-old Greek was at his office at the time of the fire. He remembers: “It was terrible. Small flames developed into a critical situation in a few seconds. As soon as I realized it had become a threat to my home I immediately rushed back. I was relieved when the fire did not come close. I could hear the crews fighting the wildfires. It was as close to a war zone as you can get in time of peace. For a month after the fires, I was numb. However, a few months later I could see green plants sprouting up from the earth and I was positive that the forest would regenerate.”


Climate change and wildfires

Mr. Stavros Dimas, the European Commissioner for the Environment 2004-2009, honored us with his valuable insight. “Wildfires are most likely to occur when there is a remarkably elevated temperature. Last year, temperatures especially in Greece went up to over 40 degrees. Therefore, the country had the worst wildfires than ever.”

Naturally, climate change came up. Mr Dimas noted that wildfires are intricately connected to climate change. “It is a bigger problem in places like the ones near the sea or the ones with higher temperatures. Wildfires happen in drier or hotter places but they are all connected to climate change.”                           

Mr Dimas warns: “Our planet does not have much time until there is no turning point. If we do not act now, temperatures will increase so much that we will not be able to live in these conditions. This is why 196 parties signed an agreement in Paris in 2015 where they agreed to stop climate change for good to avoid severe consequences.

Increase in wildfires in the USA 1985-2015 because of climate change.

The Aftermath

After such fires, nature is damaged as much as the people affected. Forest fires cause soil, air and water pollution. Beneficial microorganisms in the soil disappear and the fertility of the soil and the productivity of the plants decrease. With a decreasing number of plants, the amount of oxygen produced by photosynthesis drops.

Vegetation is also significantly affected depending on the temperature and the time in which the forest fire occurs. Plants and trees that survive the flames become susceptible to diseases, fungi and insects because their resistance is reduced after burn injury.

Lots of animal deaths occur after the fire because of loss of habitat and food resources. Wildfires also kill animals that are not able to escape. Mr Dimas agrees: “Surely, wildfires affect the environment gravely. Indicatively, animals have to leave their homes since huge areas of land where they used to live get burnt and become desert.”

Wildfires also affect global climate systems due to the increase in carbon emissions. More particularly, CO2, NO2 and SO2 gases found in smoke rising from fire are greenhouse gases which thicken the layer day by day. Therefore, the average temperature of the Earth rises and causes global warming. In 2018 the IPCC 1.5 C Special Report on Global warming reveals the urgency of the climate crisis. The report suggests that by 2030 we should limit the global average temperature rise to 1.5°C. (IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) With increasing climate change, dry summers are seen in some regions and forest fires break out. In other regions, we witness floods with sudden precipitation. Everything in nature is connected; when a variable changes, the balance is disturbed.

Greece /Evia Island

What can we do?

There are several ways to prevent wildfires. The authorities should identify the places with a high risk of fire and take necessary measures. Mr Dimas notes: “A country needs to have particularly good infrastructure to prevent and battle fires. Of course, it is not only hot temperatures that are to blame. 90% of the fires are caused by human carelessness.”

Thus, broken glass or cigarette budds should not be thrown into forests.

Educational and warning information should be provided to the people living in fire-sensitive areas, attics and basements should be kept clean, children should not play with fire. Heaters and stoves should be used with caution.

The serious conclusion from all of the above is that the future of our planet is in human hands.

We need to act now.


“How Climate Change Affects Children's Health.” News, 7 June 2019, https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/how-climate-change-affects-childrens-health/ Accessed:17 January 2022

 “What Is Climate Change? A Really Simple Guide.” BBC News, BBC, 13 Oct. 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-24021772. Accessed:17 January 2022

 Dyster, Adam. “Education Is the Key to Addressing Climate Change.” Left Foot Forward: Leading the UK's Progressive Debate, 26 July 2013, https://leftfootforward.org/2013/07/education-is-the-key-to-addressing-climate-change/comment-page-6/?doing_wp_cron=1634330311.6515750885009765625000.

 “What Can We Do to Help?” NASA, NASA, https://climatekids.nasa.gov/how-to-help/.  Accessed 18 January 2022

 “Why Are the Wildfires in Greece and Turkey so Severe?” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 13 Aug. 2021, https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/wildfires-greece-turkey-climate-crisis-b1899524.html?src=rss. Accessed 18 January 2022

 Jonathan Overpeck Samual A. Graham Dean. “Climate Change Is Driving Wildfires, and Not Just in California.” The Conversation, 17 Feb. 2022, https://theconversation.com/climate-change-is-driving-wildfires-and-not-just-in-california-107240. Accessed 21 January 2022

 Kadılar, Gamze Özel. Probability Density Function. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Graphs-of-the-annual-area-burned-in-Turkey_fig4_260829111 . Accessed 24 March2022

Doğruluk Payı, Orman Yangınları ve Sonrası, 2021

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 Aydın MIRAC, UGIS Abdullah, AKKUZU EROL,UNAL Sabri, Orman Yangınlarının Su Kaynakları Uzerindeki Etkileri, Orman Fakultesi Dergisi, 2017 17(ç),554-564

 EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, https://www.epa.gov/pm-pollution/how-smoke-fires-can-affect-your-health. Accessed 20 February 2022


 Akkaş, Simge. “Orman Yangınları ve Sonrası.” Doğruluk Payı, 6 August, 2021, https://www.dogrulukpayi.com/bulten/orman-yanginlari-orman-varligi-ve sonrasi gclid=CjwKCAiAx8KQBhAGEiwAD3EiP3SRCZfbyFutefi7isWBR9g643iWyWyQzhhMAvDVA3w9gJ_wyc8mMBoCUUAQAvD_BwE .Accessed 22 February 2022

 Akkaş, Simge. “Orman Yangınları Ve Sonrası: Doğruluk Payı.” Ana Sayfa, https://www.dogrulukpayi.com/bulten/orman-yanginlari-orman-varligi-ve-sonrasi?gclid=CjwKCAiAx8KQBhAGEiwAD3EiP3SRCZfbyFutefi7isWBR9g643iWyWyQzhhMAvDVA3w9gJ_wyc8mMBoCUUAQAvD_BwE. Accessed 15 February 2022

 Graphs of the Annual Area Burned in Turkey. | Download ... https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Graphs-of-the-annual-area-burned-in-Turkey_fig4_260829111. Accessed 15 February 2022

 (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. “Greece Wildfires: Thousands Flee Island of Evia as Blazes Continue to Ravage Lands: DW: 07.08.2021.” DW.COM, https://www.dw.com/en/greece-wildfiresthousands-flee-island-of-evia-as-blazes-continue-to-ravage-lands/a-58794368. Accessed 16 February 2022


1.Σοφία Αποστόλη: Young Reporters for the Environment 

posted in ΚΑ ΔΗΜ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΕΣ ΑΓΓΛΙΚΩΝ / General at Τετάρτη, 13 Απριλίου 2022 11:17:54 π.μ.




Unnoticed danger: the fashion industry (Portugal and Turkey)

YRE Competition 2021
International Collaboration
Article 15-18 years old

People often think of discarded plastic, glass, paper, and metal when waste is addressed. What if we told you about another huge source of waste? From crop tops to mum jeans, fashion trends go into wardrobes faster than ever, thanks to the internet, influencers, and various algorithms. Looking trendy has never been so easy and cheap. But at what cost? Statistics make us ask ourselves about the environmental impact of this unstoppable consumption.

Photographing an exhibition (1)

To understand how aware Portuguese and Turkish youths are of these issues, and learn about their shopping behaviour, we have conducted a survey which was answered by 100 teenagers. We also carried out a detailed research and interviews to understand the path towards sustainability.

How aware are young consumers of these issues?

Some answers aren’t very encouraging. Most teens say they don’t read labels, don’t consider clothes’ environmental impact, only have a vague idea about which raw materials are more eco-friendly and ignore the water consumption of clothes’ production. In contrast, written comments show many are concerned about these problems.

Survey answered by 50 Portuguese and 50 Turkish teens, aged 14-17, March 2021

Survey answered by 50 Portuguese and 50 Turkish teens, aged 14-17, March 2021

Teens own many clothes. In Turkey over 50% say they wear them all but, in Portugal, this percentage is lower. A Portuguese teen says, “I ask myself 3 things before buying clothing: if I need it, how many times I’ll use it, and if it’s timeless.” However, in both countries, less than 50% teens buy clothes only when they need them.

Most teens say their choice is mainly a stylish one. Others say they don’t know eco-friendly brands. “If two brands have a similar product, I’ll choose the eco-friendly brand,” a Turkish teenager declares, and a Portuguese one explains, “They are much more expensive than popular brands and it’s difficult to guarantee they’re eco-friendly”.

Thankfully, the percentage of youths who donate their clothes is extremely high, and the combined percentage of teens who never dump clothes is positive. The majority also try to buy clothes that last longer.

Why should we take this issue seriously?

Nowadays, consumers buy 60% more clothes than 20 years ago (2), which has increased production and waste. However, the environmental impact of fashion is still underestimated (3). This industry is the second-largest water consumer worldwide (4), produces 20% of global wastewater (5), and is responsible for 10% of all CO2 emissions - more than aviation and shipping combined (6).

The Lifecycle of a Garment (7)

The Lifecycle of a Garment (7)

After use, 87% of textiles are sent to landfills while, globally, less than 1% of clothes are recycled as clothing (8), and if not recycled, synthetic fibres, like polyester take around 200 years to decompose (9). Furthermore, washing synthetics releases tonnes of microfibres in the ocean every year. There is also the dyeing and treatment of fabrics with toxic chemicals, which are then passed on to fish, coming to our table.

Many garments are made from a water-intensive plant: cotton. Did you know it takes around 10,000 litres of water to produce a pair of jeans? (10). Now, multiply that by the number of jeans you’ve got! Cotton farming is also responsible for insecticides and pesticides (11). In Turkey, fertilizers used in cotton production are usually based on nitrogen and “Between 1997-2001 (...) an average of 9,000 tonnes of nitrogen per year leaked into water resources.” (12) Turkey is the 7th largest textile and clothing exporter in the world and since this industry is a major water user, it’s relatable that the industry is creating water shortage risk (13).

Dumping clothes means throwing away the resources to make new ones. A study based on data from 2016 identified Portugal as the second largest producer of textile waste in the EU (14); in 2018, 189,873 tonnes of textiles were collected, but only 23 were recycled (15). And, in Turkey, 1,300,000 tonnes of textile waste emerge each year (16).

The path towards sustainability

The good news is the actions towards sustainability have been growing steadily. Currently, “Portugal is the world leader for high-quality technical textiles”, including fabrics made from recycled materials (17) while the ‘Zero Waste Project’ in Turkey fulfilled the goals of UNDP. Both municipalities in Eskişehir received the zero-waste certificate. In 2020, 146 tonnes of textiles were recycled by Tepebaşı Municipality (18).

Fashion creators are also realizing the need to become environmentally sustainable.  Design student, Catarina (19), told us “teachers instil this awareness in us, as potential creators of a brand.” Marta (20), from Näz, explained “We design with zero waste in mind.” using textile waste from surrounding factories to create new yarn. “The process is mechanical, using very little water.”

The Turkish company Çalık denim also leads unique innovative technologies, like D-Clear, which reduces water by 40% in dyeing, 83% in the finishing process, and uses 94% less chemicals (21).

Reducing the environmental impact of this industry is also the responsibility of consumers.

How can we contribute to this effort?

We asked this question to Portuguese journalist Vera Moutinho (22) and to Turkish sustainable-life blogger, Gamze Biran (23). They stressed the urgency of tackling this problem and gave us some advice:

Avoiding throwing out clothes - Extend their life cycle by repairing and upcycling them. Sell or donate them to friends or charity. Finally, put them in textile recycling bins.

Making conscious choices - Learn to read labels and which fabrics are less harmful to the environment. Prefer natural fibres like linen, hemp, or lyocell. 

Buying sustainable brands - They have ecological certification, as the “green label” by OEKO-TEX®, identifying all stages of production. Buying local brands makes this easier and reduces the carbon emissions of transportation.

Buying Less - Shop only what you need and stop buying fast fashion. Purchase timeless, high-quality items. Exchanging clothes, buying second-hand or renting are also great options.

We have already started taking action by questioning other youths, preparing presentations and debates, practising what to look for in a label, and we’re organising a clothes swap at school.

You play an important role in preventing these dangers by changing the way you shop and act. Let “less is more” be the idea of fashion because, in the words of a survey respondent, “A good planet is hard to find!”

By J.Barral, B.Viegas. L.Pinto, S. Castelão, A. Constantino, J. Nunes, R. Castro, T. Rodrigues,B. Kersin, S. Taha Süngül, E. Sevören, N. Maçça, İ, Başar Mutlu, Elifnaz Türeyen, M. Aydın and K. Ervüz

Webography and interviews:

1. May, Naomi."This exercise is greenwashing at its absolute worst: the truth about fashion's recycling bins", Evening Standard, 05 August 2020, https://www.standard.co.uk/insider/fashion/fashion-recycling-bins-primark-fast-fashion-sustainability-a4512311.html . Accessed 10 April 2021.   

2.Reichart Elizabeth, Drew Deborah. By the Numbers: The Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of “Fast Fashion.” World Resources Institute, January 10, 2019, https://www.wri.org/insights/numbers-economic-social-and-environmental-impacts-fast-fashion . Accessed 24 April 2021.

3.“Fashion and the SDGs: what role for the UN? The fashion industry in numbers’’. The UN Economic Commission for Europe, 01 March 2018, https://unece.org/DAM/RCM_Website/RFSD_2018_Side_event_sustainable_fashion.pdf. Accessed 24 April 2021.

4.“What is the UN Alliance for Sustainable Fashion?’’ UN Alliance For Sustainable Fashion, https://unfashionalliance.org. Accessed 20 March 2021.

5.“Putting the brakes on fashion’’. United Nations Environment Programme, 12 November 2018, https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/putting-brakes-fast-fashion . Accessed 25 April 2021

6.“UN Helps Fashion Industry Shift to Low Carbon’’. United Nations Climate Change, 6 September 2018, https://unfccc.int/news/un-helps-fashion-industry-shift-to-low-carbon. Accessed 25 April 2021.

7.Mendonça, Cátia, at al. “Moda Sustentável - A pegada da nossa Roupa”, Jornal Público, 29 November 2019, https://www.publico.pt/2019/11/29/infografia/pegada-roupa-391. Accessed 25 January 2021.

8.“The impact of textile production and waste on the environment (infographic)’’. European Parliament, 29 December 2020, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20201208STO93327/the-impact-of-textile-production-and-waste-on-the-environment-infographic. Accessed 25 April 2021.

9.“Fashion’s Environmental Impacts: Waste problem of the fashion industry’’, Sustain your Style, https://www.sustainyourstyle.org/en/environmental-impacts. Accessed 25 April 2021.

 10.“ActNew for Zero-Waste Fashion’’. United Nations Sustainable Goals, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2019/08/actnow-for-zero-waste-fashion/ . Accessed 23 April 2021

11.“Fashion is an environmental and social emergency but can also drive progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals’’. The UN Economic Commission for Europe, 01 March 2018, https://unece.org/forestry/news/fashion-environmental-and-social-emergency-can-also-drive-progress-towards . Accessed 25 April 2021.

12.Altun, Şule. “Uşak Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası Raporu’’, 2016, p.15, https://usaktso.org/dosya/Kurumsal/Trk_Teks_Ger_Don.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2021.

13.Restiani, Phillia et al. “Water Governance Mapping Report: Textile Industry Water Use in Turkey’’, p.2, https://www.siwi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Water-governance-mapping-report-Turkey.pdf. Accessed 25 April 2021.

14.“Fashion Waste Index”, Labfresh, https://labfresh.eu/pages/fashion-waste-index?locale=en. Accessed 19 April 2021.

15.Moutinho, Vera. “Moda Sustentável - As etiquetas já têm respostas para um consumo mais responsável?”, Jornal Público, 29 November 2019, https://www.publico.pt/2019/11/29/impar/noticia/etiquetas-ja-respostas-consumo-responsavel-1895242 . Accessed 25 January 2021.

16.Sıfır Atık, created by Ömer Faruk Katkat and Uğur Alibaşoğlu, season 1, episode 10, 01:23, TRT Belgesel, 2020 https://www.trtizle.com/belgesel/sifir-atik/sifir-atik-10-bolum-2068906. Accessed 25 April 2021.

17.“Textile and fashion industry in Portugal”, Denmark in Portugal, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, https://portugal.um.dk/en/the-trade-council/portugal-as-a-market/textile-and-fashion-industry-in-portugal/ . Accessed 22 April 2021.

18. “Tepebaşı’nda Geri Kazanım Devam Ediyor’’, Eskisehir Tepebası Belediyesi, 25 October 2020, http://www.tepebasi.bel.tr/hd.asp?hid=9852. Accessed 25 April 2021.

19.Martins, Catarina. Zoom interview. 24 March 2021

20.Ferreira, Marta. Zoom interview. 26 March 2021

21.“D- Clear: Breakthrough Technology in Sustainability'', Calık Denim, 28 May 2020, https://blog.calikdenim.com/news/d-clear-breakthrough-technology-in-sustainability. Accessed 25 April 2021

Anaç Kübra, “Denim Üretiminde Sürdürülebilir Geleceği Çalık Denim ile Konuştuk’’, 22 October 2020, https://www.oggusto.com/business/surdurulebilir-denim-ureticisi-calik-denim. Accessed 25 April 2021. 

22.Moutinho, Vera. Zoom interview. 11 March 2021

23.Biran, Gamze. Instagram direct message. 08 April 2021


International Collaboration

1st Place (article 15-18 years)
Title: Unnoticed Danger: The Fashion Industry
Countries: Portugal and Turkey

2nd Place (article 15-18 years)
Title: How Can Traditional Watering Systems Help The Environment?
Countries: Portugal and Montenegro

3rd place (article 11-14 years)
Title: Honey bees are important members of a sustainable life
Countries: Turkey and Slovenia

Honourable mention (video 15-18 years)
Title: Different countries, same problem – Finding a solution for the pollution!
Countries: Portugal and Turkey

Behind the world’s largest cork producer

YRE Competition 2020
International Collaboration
15-18 years old

The cork tree is known as the only tree in the world that can survive having all its bark removed from its trunk. Not as well-known are the facts that it is also fireproof, waterproof and soundproof, thus making it also resistant to a wide spectrum of weather, climate and elements and more importantly is the fact that harvested oak trees store up to five times more carbon than unharvested ones. The bark obtained through extractions is more popularly used in the production of cork.

As tradition goes the cork tree (Quercus suber) is left untouched for the first 25 years or until it obtains the diameter of 70cm. It would then be ready for its first extraction, which is called “desbóia”. This specific type of bark, along with that obtained in the secondary extraction (which occurs at least nine years later) is not used in the production of wine stoppers because the cork is not mature enough for this process. It is instead used in the making of clothing and shoes, insulation, domestic, gym and playground flooring, decoration, musical instruments, kayaks, surfboards and even in the tip of shuttlecocks. This cork is also implemented in structures such as train railways, airports, music studios and the interior walls of wind turbines – in the first two it is used as a way to reduce vibrations and noise from the loud vehicles using them therefore reducing the public disturbance and noise pollution and in the last one the corks insulation in the turbine prevents ice and snow from forming on the blades. Another great example of using cork in the natural environment is when it is used in cases of oil spills to extract it from the sea and recollect it. In such a scenario the cork attracts the oil and absorbs it in its empty cells.

The proceeding bark extractions, fit for the production of cork stoppers, goes through a set of specific steps that make it usable. During the months of May, June and July the cork is carefully removed from the tree and transported to the factory. The cork will rest during one year and after this time it will go through the boiling process where the planks are boiled for an hour to soften them, make them more flexible and also to clean them throughout. To avoid cross-contamination nowadays, the water is cleaned, filtered and replenished regularly, with faulty pieces being removed on a continuous basis. Afterwards these are placed on a concrete slab to avoid contact with the ground and left to dry out for around a year. During this process the bark cells are emptied from their cytoplasm and this is instead replaced with air- which helps it get more flexible. The cork is then graded and cut into workable pieces manually. Some would then be used for punching natural corks out of; others will be used to make technical corks if not for other objects. According to local producers of cork, this is normally decided by the thickness and quality the bark and could range the price of the cork lid to a maximum cost of €3 each. Despite cork lids being the main product the company produces (consisting generally of 70% of their sales) surprisingly, the cork suitable for this represents only 30% of their products.

Amorim, a family company- currently the biggest cork importer and producer on the planet, imports more than 5.5 billion corks a year out of the total of the 19 billion sold worldwide. Just as their motto goes «not just one market, not just one client, not just one currency, not just one product», the Amorim Group overcame geographical borders and constraints, risky at the time it was founded in 1870, and presented cork to the world, making its mark in sectors such as real estate, design, fashion, technological progress, finance, telecommunications, tourism and green energy- which they currently use to run the factory. It was stated that at the moment, the local infrastructures produce 92% of the energy needed and overall in all Amorim factories 52%. This number is expected to rise in the following years, such that the company would be able to completely sustain itself and other local buildings hopefully. Amorim is also responsible for the management of 70 companies engaged in the cork manufacture, research, development, promotion and sale of products and new solutions for the cork industry.

So far, apart from gaining the name and reputation as the best cork producer in the world, Amorim has also achieved several other reputable goals including: collaboration with Nike, NASA, the Olympic Games and O-I (Helix Concept) and also worked with distinguished artists in the building of several famous places, amongst them the Sagrada Família in Spain and the Victorian London Museum. Innovation and the ability to generate new business have always been part of Amorim’s goal, therefore its workers health safety and content is always a priority. As a way to promote this they have started to apply the KAIZAN methodology invented by the company Toyota. Every morning before work, five minutes are dedicated to break the work process for the day, analyse the previous day`s results and expectations. This ensures the employees maximum output in their work. It is also worth noticing that the job of a cork harvester is the most well paid agricultural job in Portugal.

Amorim also helps raise awareness to the constantly raising environmental and climate issues. Internally this is done constantly such that the company is self-sufficient in the way that everything is used or recycled and never thrown away. The Amorim cork bark is certified FSC 100%, meaning that the company operates in an environmentally, economically and socially responsible way. This might not seem like much in the case of cork production as the trees are not destroyed or ruined, but still in cases of bird nests or any other animal impact on the oak precaution is taken and the tree is left to be. Animal impact on the trees is respected in Amorim, especially nowadays when more and more people are interested in where their products come from, how they are made, and their impact on the world around them. Pesticides are used as little as possible in the growth and upkeep of the trees, as they tend to destroy the bark and make it not fit for cork stopper production therefore natural means are used to fight the raising bug and illness issue caused by drastic increase in temperatures. Externally it constantly rises awareness among the public by hosting competitions with schools, restaurants and other business, they ask these organisations to give the company used cork back in return for much needed resources and funding. Law is given full priority in the upkeep of oak trees and if some of these trees are cut due to personal or commercial reason, the person has to replant in return 125%. By this action the safety and survival of the oak tree is permanently secured.